12. Catalogue descriptions
For purposes of Auctionata’s liability pursuant to Clauses 10 and 11 herein, the following definition of terms will apply with respect to the attribution data provided in the catalogue:
a) "Attributed to": Although Auctionata and/or at least one recognized, external expert believe(s) this to be a work by the artist's own hand, Auctionata – despite its well-founded presumption – cannot definitively warrant that this is the case for specific reasons: e.g. because there is an opposing view in the expert community, or because attribution is not conclusively provable or is rendered difficult due to special circumstances.
b) "Workshop of": Although the work comes from the workshop of the artist, and is thus directly influenced by him, it does not come from the hand of the artist himself, but from another hand.
c) "Circle of": Although the work was directly and clearly influenced by the artist and was created during, or shortly after, the artist's lifetime, it does not come from the hand of the artist himself, but from another hand.
d) "Disciple of": Although the work was influenced by the artist, it was probably created without any direct or indirect contact with the artist himself. Thus, it comes from the hand of a “disciple” – either a contemporary of the artist or someone living in a later period – whose aim was to imitate the artist’s original style.
e) "School": The work cannot be attributed to any particular artist. It can, however, be attributed to a particular artistic milieu, geographical area, and/or epoch (e.g. “Dutch School of the 17th Century”).
f) "Period" or "century": The work cannot be attributed to any particular artist. It can, however, be attributed to the specified historical period or specified century.
g) "In the style of", “in the fashion of ", "in the manner of", “in the genre of”: Although the work was created in the style of the specified artist or period, it definitely comes from the hand of a different artist and from a different period.
h) "Signed": The term "signed" merely refers to a characteristic of the work and makes no claim as to its purported attribution or authenticity.
i) "After": The work is a copy of a particular work. The original is known and was created by a known hand, whilst the copy comes from a different hand.