Rare Schist Figure of Fasting Buddha, Gandhara, 2nd-4th C.
Rare Schist Figure of Fasting Buddha, Gandhara, 2nd-4th C.
Classic Auction No. 715 from Berlin

Important Gandhara and Early Buddhist Sculptures from an European Collection

2016-12-16T15:00:00.000Z2016-12-16T17:00:00.000ZBerlin & Onlinehttps://auctionata.com/en-us/s/905/auction-important-gandhara-and-early-buddhist-sculptures-from-an-european-collection-december-2016Preview: BERLIN Dec 13-15, 2016, 10am-6pm CET, Vernissage: Dec 12, 2016, 6pm CET Kurfürstendamm 212, 10719 Berlin, Germany Special Preview in Paris: Dec 14 + 15, 2016, 4am-12pm EDT, Vernissage: Dec 13, 2016, 11am EDT Hotel Westminster, 13 Rue de la Paix, 75002 Paris, France Important Gandhara and Early Buddhist Sculptures from a European Collection Auctionata is honored to present a unique and exceptionally rare group of approximately 40 early Buddhist sculptures with outstanding provenance. The family’s collection was founded in the 19th century by an art-loving industrialist and very open-minded entrepreneur. --- The family established its exquisite and comprehensive collection in cooperation with an extensive network of private and commercial contacts. The Gandhara lots, including some of most rare and highly coveted depictions of the Buddha, have been anchors of the collection since the 1930s, as proven by the thorough handwritten inventory. The vast majority of the documented artworks were acquired with the assistance of several notable advisors who shared close personal ties with the family. Among them are celebrities from the early 20th century, including former Iranian prime-minister Ebrahim Hakimi, and Spanish-born art dealer Lucas-Moreno, who managed a renowned art gallery in fin-de-siècle Paris. The vast region of Gandhara most highly regarded for its contributions to ancient culture stretches from the Caspian Sea to the Hindukush mountain range, and down to the Indus River Valley. Today, much of the region is located within the boundaries of northwest Pakistan and the Jalalabad district of modern Afghanistan. Gandharan’s strategic position on the continent has been a catalyst for transcultural cultural influx since ancient times, and it became a prominent hub for trade, religion, and art, revealing Indo-Parthian, Indo-Scythian, Indo-Greek and Hellenistic influences alike. The synthesis of foreign styles with Indian forms is typical of the multi-ethnic character of Gandharan art. Life-sized representations of the Fasting Buddha, seen here as lot no. 7, are exemplary of Gandharan Buddhist art. Such iconic depictions of the Buddha inhabit a distinct position in Gandharan Buddhist art, similar to the more prominent idealized, anthropomorphic image of Buddha. There remain few images of the Emaciated Buddha, employing uncompromised naturalism in the depictions of the body and face, juxtaposed with the stylized treatment of the garments and calm expression. Sculptural renditions of the Winged Atlas (lot no. 3) from the ancient region of Gandhara show diverse formal compositions and stand in stark contrast to the Greco-Roman tradition of depicting the Titan holding the heavens in his hands. Gandharan figures of the Atlas are regularly composed in a leisurely seated position. Their function as epistyle figures on architectural friezes, however, underlines their visual support of the superstructure, as is the case with the figure in this auction. The female deity Hariti (lot no. 8) was largely popular in Gandhara, and appears to be well established by the Indo-Greek and Kushan times. Hariti was often associated with the Greek and Roman personifications of abundance and good fortune. Images of the future Buddha Maitreya (lot no. 13), whose destiny is reincarnation as an instructor of enlightenment in the next age, became increasingly popular when Buddhist art spread from Gandhara to China. The deeply incised lines of the drapery, hairstyle and jewelry are reminiscent of Hellenistic sculptures in the naturalistic attention to anatomical details, and allude to Greco-Roman imagery. The Sinification of Buddhist art by the late fifth and early sixth centuries is based on the gradual transformation of Buddhist artworks into something specifically Chinese, and aesthetically based on native Chinese taste. An example of this distinct Chinese style of robe and facial expression is evident in the magnificent limestone figure of a standing Guanyin of the Northern dynasties of the 5t/6th centuries (lot no. 28).   欧洲私人收藏的犍陀罗和早期佛教的重要造像 Auctionata非常荣幸能够呈献一组独特及罕见的逾四十件来源不俗的早期佛教造像。此组造像出自于十九世纪由热衷于艺术的实业家和非常开明的企业家建立起的一个欧洲家族私藏。该家族凭借其广泛的社会关系和商业网络,建立了其精美和丰富全面的收藏。犍陀罗拍品中涵盖了一些及其罕见和高度品相的佛像造型,有完整的手写库录证明了其自20世纪30年代以来一直是藏品中的重器。众多的有史书记载的艺术品是在几位著名顾问的帮助下获得的,他们与其家族中人有亲密关系,其中有20世纪初的名人,如前伊朗首相Ebrahim Hakimi和经营巴黎一间著名的艺术画廊的,西班牙出生的艺术品经销商Lucas-Moreno。 犍陀罗地区(从里海到兴都库什山脉,直到印度河谷)最受瞩目的是其对古文化的贡献, 今指位于巴基斯坦西北部和现代阿富汗贾拉拉巴德区的的大部分地区。 犍陀罗在大陆的战略地位自古以来一直是跨文化的交际催化剂,它成为各国贸易、宗教和艺术交流的一个突出的枢纽,深受印度-帕提亚帝国、印度-斯基泰、印度-希腊和希腊文化的影响, 异国风格与印度文化形式的融合形成了多元化特征鲜明的犍陀罗艺术。 拍品中标为第7号的释迦苦修坐禅像是犍陀罗佛教艺术的典范,这种对佛陀的修习苦行时标志性的形象塑造在犍陀罗佛教艺术中占有独特的位置,如同较夸张地反衬出佛陀的精神力量和拟人造像。 还有一些佛陀瘦到皮包骨的形象,在身体和脸部的描绘中采用了这种自然外表,服装的风格化处理和佛陀平静的表情的对比更能反衬出释迦的精神力量与美。 来自古代犍陀罗地区的双翼擎天神塑像(第3号拍品)展示了一件不同形式造型的作品,与希腊-罗马式传统的双手撑天的擎天神形象形成鲜明对比。犍陀罗的擎天神通常塑造成一种悠闲的坐姿,他们以神祗人物作为支撑建筑的装饰,但是更强调了他们对上层建筑的视觉支持,正如这次拍卖中的此件擎天神。 生育女神鬼子母Harit(第8号拍品)在犍陀罗被广泛信奉,于印度 - 希腊和古山时期呈现成熟,鬼子母经常与希腊和罗马代表充裕和好运的人物结合。 未来佛弥勒佛的造像(第13号拍品),是世尊释迦牟尼的继任者,当佛教艺术从犍陀罗传播到中国时愈渐深受推崇。衣纹、发型和首饰的清晰线条令人想起希腊雕塑的自然主义风格,注重解剖细节,并隐含希腊-罗马造型。 五世纪晚期和六世纪初期的佛教艺术的思想是基于佛教艺术逐渐融入了中国悠久的文化特别元素和以中国本土美学为基础的品味,汉地的特征日渐明显,世俗化意味也进一步融入造像中。如一尊壮丽的石灰岩5世纪/ 6世纪北朝观音立像(第28号拍品)体现 了这种独特的中国式长袍和面部表情尤为明显。 Friday, December 16, 10:00 am EST
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About this auction

Preview:

BERLIN
Dec 13-15, 2016, 10am-6pm CET, Vernissage: Dec 12, 2016, 6pm CET
Kurfürstendamm 212, 10719 Berlin, Germany

Special Preview in Paris:
Dec 14 + 15, 2016, 4am-12pm EDT, Vernissage: Dec 13, 2016, 11am EDT
Hotel Westminster, 13 Rue de la Paix, 75002 Paris, France


Important Gandhara and Early Buddhist Sculptures from a European Collection

Auctionata is honored to present a unique and exceptionally rare group of approximately 40 early Buddhist sculptures with outstanding provenance. The family’s collection was founded in the 19th century by an art-loving industrialist and very open-minded entrepreneur.
... read more
The family established its exquisite and comprehensive collection in cooperation with an extensive network of private and commercial contacts. The Gandhara lots, including some of most rare and highly coveted depictions of the Buddha, have been anchors of the collection since the 1930s, as proven by the thorough handwritten inventory. The vast majority of the documented artworks were acquired with the assistance of several notable advisors who shared close personal ties with the family. Among them are celebrities from the early 20th century, including former Iranian prime-minister Ebrahim Hakimi, and Spanish-born art dealer Lucas-Moreno, who managed a renowned art gallery in fin-de-siècle Paris.

The vast region of Gandhara most highly regarded for its contributions to ancient culture stretches from the Caspian Sea to the Hindukush mountain range, and down to the Indus River Valley. Today, much of the region is located within the boundaries of northwest Pakistan and the Jalalabad district of modern Afghanistan. Gandharan’s strategic position on the continent has been a catalyst for transcultural cultural influx since ancient times, and it became a prominent hub for trade, religion, and art, revealing Indo-Parthian, Indo-Scythian, Indo-Greek and Hellenistic influences alike. The synthesis of foreign styles with Indian forms is typical of the multi-ethnic character of Gandharan art.

Life-sized representations of the Fasting Buddha, seen here as lot no. 7, are exemplary of Gandharan Buddhist art. Such iconic depictions of the Buddha inhabit a distinct position in Gandharan Buddhist art, similar to the more prominent idealized, anthropomorphic image of Buddha. There remain few images of the Emaciated Buddha, employing uncompromised naturalism in the depictions of the body and face, juxtaposed with the stylized treatment of the garments and calm expression.

Sculptural renditions of the Winged Atlas (lot no. 3) from the ancient region of Gandhara show diverse formal compositions and stand in stark contrast to the Greco-Roman tradition of depicting the Titan holding the heavens in his hands. Gandharan figures of the Atlas are regularly composed in a leisurely seated position. Their function as epistyle figures on architectural friezes, however, underlines their visual support of the superstructure, as is the case with the figure in this auction.

The female deity Hariti (lot no. 8) was largely popular in Gandhara, and appears to be well established by the Indo-Greek and Kushan times. Hariti was often associated with the Greek and Roman personifications of abundance and good fortune.

Images of the future Buddha Maitreya (lot no. 13), whose destiny is reincarnation as an instructor of enlightenment in the next age, became increasingly popular when Buddhist art spread from Gandhara to China. The deeply incised lines of the drapery, hairstyle and jewelry are reminiscent of Hellenistic sculptures in the naturalistic attention to anatomical details, and allude to Greco-Roman imagery.

The Sinification of Buddhist art by the late fifth and early sixth centuries is based on the gradual transformation of Buddhist artworks into something specifically Chinese, and aesthetically based on native Chinese taste. An example of this distinct Chinese style of robe and facial expression is evident in the magnificent limestone figure of a standing Guanyin of the Northern dynasties of the 5t/6th centuries (lot no. 28).

 

欧洲私人收藏的犍陀罗和早期佛教的重要造像

Auctionata非常荣幸能够呈献一组独特及罕见的逾四十件来源不俗的早期佛教造像。此组造像出自于十九世纪由热衷于艺术的实业家和非常开明的企业家建立起的一个欧洲家族私藏。该家族凭借其广泛的社会关系和商业网络,建立了其精美和丰富全面的收藏。犍陀罗拍品中涵盖了一些及其罕见和高度品相的佛像造型,有完整的手写库录证明了其自20世纪30年代以来一直是藏品中的重器。众多的有史书记载的艺术品是在几位著名顾问的帮助下获得的,他们与其家族中人有亲密关系,其中有20世纪初的名人,如前伊朗首相Ebrahim Hakimi和经营巴黎一间著名的艺术画廊的,西班牙出生的艺术品经销商Lucas-Moreno。

犍陀罗地区(从里海到兴都库什山脉,直到印度河谷)最受瞩目的是其对古文化的贡献, 今指位于巴基斯坦西北部和现代阿富汗贾拉拉巴德区的的大部分地区。 犍陀罗在大陆的战略地位自古以来一直是跨文化的交际催化剂,它成为各国贸易、宗教和艺术交流的一个突出的枢纽,深受印度-帕提亚帝国、印度-斯基泰、印度-希腊和希腊文化的影响, 异国风格与印度文化形式的融合形成了多元化特征鲜明的犍陀罗艺术。

拍品中标为第7号的释迦苦修坐禅像是犍陀罗佛教艺术的典范,这种对佛陀的修习苦行时标志性的形象塑造在犍陀罗佛教艺术中占有独特的位置,如同较夸张地反衬出佛陀的精神力量和拟人造像。 还有一些佛陀瘦到皮包骨的形象,在身体和脸部的描绘中采用了这种自然外表,服装的风格化处理和佛陀平静的表情的对比更能反衬出释迦的精神力量与美。

来自古代犍陀罗地区的双翼擎天神塑像(第3号拍品)展示了一件不同形式造型的作品,与希腊-罗马式传统的双手撑天的擎天神形象形成鲜明对比。犍陀罗的擎天神通常塑造成一种悠闲的坐姿,他们以神祗人物作为支撑建筑的装饰,但是更强调了他们对上层建筑的视觉支持,正如这次拍卖中的此件擎天神。

生育女神鬼子母Harit(第8号拍品)在犍陀罗被广泛信奉,于印度 - 希腊和古山时期呈现成熟,鬼子母经常与希腊和罗马代表充裕和好运的人物结合。

未来佛弥勒佛的造像(第13号拍品),是世尊释迦牟尼的继任者,当佛教艺术从犍陀罗传播到中国时愈渐深受推崇。衣纹、发型和首饰的清晰线条令人想起希腊雕塑的自然主义风格,注重解剖细节,并隐含希腊-罗马造型。

五世纪晚期和六世纪初期的佛教艺术的思想是基于佛教艺术逐渐融入了中国悠久的文化特别元素和以中国本土美学为基础的品味,汉地的特征日渐明显,世俗化意味也进一步融入造像中。如一尊壮丽的石灰岩5世纪/ 6世纪北朝观音立像(第28号拍品)体现 了这种独特的中国式长袍和面部表情尤为明显。

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3 | Gray Schist Figure of a Winged Atlas, Gandhara, 2nd-4th C.
  • Highly polished gray schist with age-related patina
  • Ancient region of Gandhara, 2nd-4th century
  • Frontal-viewed sculpture of a Winged Atlas in crouching position with his outward-turned feet firmly based on a plinth; the arms bend and his hands resting on the knees
  • The most expressive figure has been very well carved out of the stone, catching both the athletic bone structure and the carnose musculature of the Atlas with great naturalistic plasticity and detailed accuracy
  • The pronounced rounded belly points to its function as central seat of the physical energy distributed in the body; the genitals of the naked Atlas are placed on a folded garment
  • The layout of the rounded head reflects the sculptural tradition of Gandhara, apparent in features like the distinct wrinkles above the arched, angular carved eye brows leading into a sturdy nose, the wide eyes with pronounced lid contours, the high cheek bones and the fleshy chin, and the wavy hair arranged in horizontal lines
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7 | Very Rare Schist Figure of the ‘Fasting Buddha’, Gandhara
  • Gray schist
  • Ancient region of Gandhara, 2nd-4th century
  • Very expressively carved figure of the seated Buddha in dhyanasana on an indicated grass mat on a pedestal, dressed in a thin, long Dhoti and scarf with deep folds sticking tightly over his body and ankles, flowing into a large loop in front of his legs
  • Due to the fasting, his emaciated, ascetic torso revealing his ribcage, bony shoulders, tendons, and veins, his viscera at the flat, sunken plane for the abdomen becoming visible
  • The Buddha's wavy hair with bun-shaped Ushnisa and the full beard framing the face with expressive, emaciated features, like gaunt cheeks and deep-set eyes, his veins and tendons visible and pointing to the strong mental and physical struggle the Buddha perfoms
  • The pedestal with a frieze centered by a stupa and flanked by six adorants
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13 | A Gray Schist Figure of Seated Maitreya, Gandhara
  • Gray schist
  • Ancient region of Gandhara, 2nd-4th century
  • Figure of the seated future Buddha Maitreya as bodhisattva, cross-legged with his soles pointing upwards resting on a draped plinth, his hands performing the dyanamudra, behind his head a circular halo
  • His wavy hair is bound into a topknot and falls down sidewards across his shoulders in undulating rows
  • His face with harmonious features and a gently rounded chin, the heavy-lidded almond-shaped eyes are finely arched beneath sharp-edged brows, a fine aquiline modelled nose and a bow-shaped mouth with full lips, a prominent urna at the forehead
  • Princely bejewelled, his breast is bare with indicated ribcage, his stole is draped in folds across his left shoulder, and flowing into a large loop in front of his legs
1 / 10
22 | Stone Relief Nude Female Deity, Central Asia, 1st Mill. BC
  • Stone
  • Central Asia, 1st Mill. BC
  • Stone relief panel depicting in full frontal view a standing nude female figure with tapering feathered wings and large talons
  • Similar to Gandharan depictions, her wavy hair frames the oval face with gently features, the heavy-lidded almond-shaped eyes below finely arched eyebrows, a fine aquiline modelled nose and a bow-shaped mouth with full lips
  • She has an elaborate necklace and bracelets on each wrist, also very prominent heavy earrings, similar to Gandharan Buddhist figures
  • Her hands raised to the level of her shoulders, each holding a rod-and-ring, the figure is supported by a pair of lions and flanked by a pair of standing owls, all in full frontal relief
1 / 10
28 | Limestone Figure of a Guanyin on a Lotus Base, China, 5th/6th C
  • Limestone
  • China, 5th/6th century, possibly Shandong province
  • Figure of a standing bodhisattva Avalokitesvara (Guanyin) on a lotus base with two flanking lions, in her left hand a kundika, the right arm missing
  • The face serene with downcast eyes and a gentle smile, wearing a tiara with lotus disc and a medium-relief figure of the Amitabha Buddha
  • The fully formed fleshy head stands on a slender body, the shoulders draped with a pleated shawl falling over the arms and sides, all rendered with intricate and rich details of softly modeled drapery folds and elaborate jewelry
  • Height: 100 cm
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34 | Figure of 'Bactrian Princess', Central Asia, c. 2300-1700 BC
  • Chlorite and calcite
  • Central Asia, Oxus civilization, late third to early second millennium BC
  • Small composite figure consisting of detachable parts
  • Statuette of a rounded figure of a seated female deity with only schematized antropomorphic features
  • The small head and arms are detachable and were carved from a block of white calcite, contrasting with the deliberately and delicate carving of the hairdress and clothes made of green chlorite, the thick robe entirely covers the body, parts of the garment are made of a stylized fleecy material of superposed stripes and are reminiscent of the kaunakes, a woolen garment of Sumerian origin
  • With a wooden base
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